Thursday, March 5, 2009

Dendrobium Orchid Care

Dendrobiums Orchid are among the most commonly encountered orchids in the retail trade. Like most other cultivated orchids, dendrobiums are epiphytes, or air plants. They have well developed water storage organs (pseudobulbs), often called “canes” for their upright, leafy appearance. They should be potted in porous, free draining media. There are many different types of dendrobiums available to the specialist grower. However, hybrids involving Dendrobiums Phalaenopsis are what you will most often encounter.

In general terms Denrobiums  orchid care need to live as follows:
Sufficient light is important for healthy growth and flower production. Provide bright light, to 50 percent sun. In the home, an east, west or lightly shaded south window. In a greenhouse, about 30 to 50 percent of full sun. Under lights, four 40 watt fluorescent tubes and two 40 watt in candescent bulbs directly over plants. Plants should be naturally erect, with out need of (much) staking, and of a medium olive green color.

Mature plants need a 15 to 20 F difference between night and day. Provide nights of 60 to 65 F; days of 80 to 90 F. Temperatures up to 95 to 100 F are beneficial if humidity and air circulation are increased. Low tempera-tures (below 50 F) may cause leaf drop.

Keep evenly moist while in active growth. Allow to dry between waterings after growth is mature (indicated by terminal leaf).

Dendrobiums need 50 to 60 percent. In the home, place on trays over moistened pebbles. In greenhouse, use a humidifier if conditions are too dry.

Should be provided on a regular basis during the active growing period. The exact fertilizer you use will depend on the mix in which your plant is growing. A good general rule is to apply a balanced (10-10-10, 12-12-12, or similar ratio) fertilizer “weakly, weekly” during the period of active growth. That is, fertilize every week at one quarter to one half of the recommended dilution.

Should be done every two to three years before mix loses consistency (breaks down). Pot firmly in medium, giving aeration and ample drainage, allowing enough room for two years’ growth. Dendrobiums grow best in pots small for the size of the plant.

And this for Dendrobium Spesifications

Ever green for several years, with thin, tall pseudobulbs, terminal inflorescences, usually appearing in the autumn or twice a year. Species such as Den. affine, Den. bigibum (phalaenopsis), Den. dicuphum and Den. williamsianum. Culture Grow warm year round, 60 F nights, water and fertilize heavily when roots appear from new growth, medium light, reduce water and fertilizer after growth finishes. If a short (three to four week), cooler (55 F) dry rest is given, and then plants are warmed again (60 F mininum), another growth may mature during winter and flower in the spring. Treat this growth as a summer growth cycle. These grow well with phalaenopsis, except for the rest period. Plants will go deciduous if grown too cool and dry.

Spatulata (Antelope Type)
Evergreen for several years. Most are large, vigorous plants with long lasting flowers in summer to several times a year. Species such as Den. antennatum, Den. canaliculatum, Den. discolor, Den. gouldii, Den. johannis, Den. lineale (veratrifolium), Den. stratiotes, Den. strebloceras and Den. taurinum. Culture Warm all year (60 to 65 F nights, 75 to 90 F days), no rest period, can be kept cooler in winter if dry, medium to high light.

Most of the plants are pendulous, with leaves all along the canes that most often drop with on set of cooler, drier weather. One to five flowers per node are borne from the nodes of the leafless canes in mid winter through early spring.
Group 1
Species such as Den. chrysanthum, Den. friedricksianum, Den. nobile and Den. wardianum. Culture Growth period in summer, give warmth, water and fertilize heavily from when roots appear until top leaf appears on canes. Then give high light, little or no water, no fertilizer, cool nights (40 to 50 F). In other words, forget about them.
Group 2
Species such as Den. anosmum (super bum), Den. crassinode, Den. falconeri, Den. fimbriatum, Den. findlayanum, Den. heterocarpum (aureum), Den. loddigesii, Den. moniliforme, Den. parishii, Den. primulinus and Den. transparens. Culture Same as Group 1, but winter nights 55 F. Deciduous species need virtually no water in winter.

Most are pseudobulbous plants with pendent inflorescences. Species such as Den. aggregatum (now properly lindleyi), Den. chrysotoxum, Den. densiflorum, Den. farmeri and Den. thyrsi-florum. Culture Summer give warmth (60 to 90 F), medium light, medium quantities of water and fertilizer. Winter keep cool (50 F nights), medium light, just enough water to keep pseudobulbs from shriveling, no fertilizer.

Leaves at top of pseudobulbs are large and leathery, inflorescence erect, flowers commonly yellow-green. Species such as Den. atroviolaceum, Den. macrophyllum and Den. spectabile. Culture Same as antelope types, but cool-er and drier when resting in winter.

Formosae (Nigrohirsutae Type)
Canelike pseudobulbs, with black hairs on leaf sheaths and pseudobulbs often appar-ent, leading to the popular name nigrohir-sutae. Flowers usually white, up to 4 inch-es across, two to three together from near the end of the pseudobulb. Long lasting. Species such as Den. bellatulum, Den. dearii, Den. draconis, Den. formosum, Den. infundibulum, Den. lowii, Den. lyonii, Den. margaritaceum, Den. sanderae and Den. schuetzii. Culture Intermediate to cool year round, 50 to 60 F nights, maximum 85 F days. Water and fertilize when growing; give a slight short rest (dry) when growth is completed. Keep barely moist until growth starts again.

Other Species
Among the popular types are Den. lingui-forme, Den. tetragonum, Den. gracillimum and Den. cuthbertsonii (sophronitis). Culture Depends on the plant’s native environment. It is generally safe to grow them intermediate to warm (55 to 60 F at night), drying them out in winter (or as growth stops). Hybrids between sections vary in culture.

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